Loggerheads, Fratricide, Fratricidal Clashes, Fratricidal Killings during Bodoland Movement.

The Bodoland demand movement in Assam was first started democratically and soon culminated into an extremist movement and two groups viz., National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) and Boro Liberation Tigers Force (BLTF) played an instrumental role in the process. Both the NDFB and BLTF demand Bodoland, but BLTF demanded a separate state within India; on the other hand,the NDFB has been demanding a sovereign Bodoland outside the Indian union or secession from Indian Union. This ideological difference cause strong loggerheads between the two groups. This caused many fratricidal killings. The demand of BLTF has been partially fulfilled by the formation of Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC), ignoring the demand of NDFB. But, soon after the BTC formation each group became thirsty each others’ blood. So far, the Government authorities have not formulated or adopted any long-term strategy for a permanent solution to Bodo Terrorism; rather, they stratified the Bodo leadership and co-opted the middle class by negotiating with their demands. Meanwhile, some more militants have declined to lay down their arms.
In view of these developments, this paper examined the factors responsible for the fratricidal killings, the major incidents of fratricidal killings and the strategies that have been exercising by Bodo organisations in dealing with the same.
Introduction: The Bodos have been demanding Bodoland comprising whole North- bank of Brahmaputra River since 1987. Though, this demand was not new but previously “Udayachal” was demanded by Plains Tribal Council of Assam (PTCA). The plans and policies of other Bodo organizations had changed recurrently, after achieving the political power many Bodo leaders changed their attitude towards the Boro society. After independence in every Assembly/ Parliamentary elections Boro‟s have been able to get political representation. In spite of that Boro leaders failed to promote the issues like, economic underdevelopment, unemployment, illiteracy etc. Bodo leader‟s self-centered, political hobnobbing, unstable political principles cause the growth of dissatisfaction among the educated Bodo youth. Bodos were expecting more from their political leaders who were supposed to represent the interest of the community. But, the ratio between expected and achieving have had huge gap, for this reason the feel of deprivation growth in the mind of youth. Hence some youth try to rectify the incorrect policy that other Boro organization preceding leaders had adopted.
The history of the intra-group clashes among the Bodos starts after the withdrawal of „Udayachal‟ which was demanded by the PTCA since 1967. The ABSU leaders withdraw support from PTCA movement and intended to lead the Bodoland demand with their new charismatic leader Upendra Nath Brahma. Many PTCA leaders were assaulted in the hands of ABSU supporters for their betrayal towards the Bodo as well as whole tribal. Though there were loggerheads but, there was no fratricidal killing was recorded at that period. In this context it is important to know the term fratricide. The term
„fratricide‟ derived from the Latin words frater “brother” and cida “killer,” or cidum “a killing,” both from caedere “to kill, to cut down”) is the act of a person killing his or her brother.
Objectives:
1. To study the factors responsible for fratricidal killings among the Bodo rebels.

2. To study some major incidents of fratricidal killings.
3. To study the role of Bodo organisations to stop fratricidal killings.
Methodology: The paper is prepared collecting information from secondary sources. Various books, journals, news papers, research papers both from published and non-published sources of government and non government organisations have been consulted.
All Bodo Students’ Union (ABSU): The ABSU and Bodo Peoples Action Committee were the signatories of BAC Accord signed on 20th February, 1993. The BdSF, (On 25th November, 1994, the BdSF rechristened as the National Democratic Front of Bodoland or NDFB) was opposed the accord and committed to an armed struggle for the creation sovereign Bodoland. Meanwhile, rift between the Bodo elite classes started. On the contrary severe infighting within the leaders of the Bodos and due to lack definite territorial boundary BAC became a failed. At the same time the National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) had consolidated the support base within the community. Due to failed accord the NDFB indirectly blamed the ABSU and their allied groups. Due these moral and ideological differences the ABSU leaders became soft target of the NDFB. There were numerous incidents where the NDFB targeted ABSU leaders and killed them i.e. On 19th April, 1998, the NDFB terrorists kill two ABSU leaders in Darrang district. April 18, 2002, Suspected NDFB terrorists kill the All Bodo Students’ Union (ABSU) ‘Education Secretary’ Khwrwkhang Boro at Lantibari under Patacharkuchi police station limits in Barpeta. On May 3, 2002, suspected NDFB terrorists killed Laharam Mushahary, former president, Dhubri district unit, All Bodo Students‟ Union‟s (ABSU‟s). These incidents showed that NDFB had been targeted to ABSU for fratricidal killings.
Bodo Liberation Tigers Force (BLTF): Ideological difference between the NDFB and the BLTF and also their rivalry resulted in the fratricidal killings. It is worth mentioning that the NDFB aims to Sovereign Bodoland. In 1996, two rival groups, viz. NDFB and BLTF decided to annihilate each other. Each of the militant organisations tried to dominate the Bodo political parties. In their rivalry they killed, kidnapped the supporters of each other. The NDFB (new name of the BdSF, adapted on 25th November, 1994) alleged that the BLT killed Gauri Basumatary at Gendabeel on October 11, 1996 and attacked NDFB cadres from Kokrajhar town on October 20, 1996. The BLT also kidnapped Anup Doulagap, the BAC Secretary, and the son of the Chief of BAC. With this end in view, the NDFB launched operation Doar against their rival group, BLTF. On the other hand, the BLTF launched operation Srangsrang against the NDFB. On 12th December, 2000, 11 BLTF terrorists killed in an internecine clash with the NDFB terrorists in Barpeta district.
As the result of a decision taken on 10 January 2001 in Bhutan, the NDFB decided to target members of the BLTF, BSS, ABSU, Bodo People Action Committee (BPAC), and the All Bodo Women‟s Welfare Federation (ABWWF), for selective killing. On 19th January, 2001, three BLTF cadres were killed by the NDFB terrorists at Bijni. In the same year on September 16, NDFB terrorists kill a Bodo Liberation Tigers Force (BLTF) cadre and injured another in an internecine clash at Dopdopi, Rangapara police station limits, Sonitpur district, Assam. On 25th October, 2002, the NDFB‟s „chief‟ D R Nabla, in a statement in the online edition of its mouthpiece Gwdan Mahari (New nation), terms the creation of Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC) a non-pragmatic move. On 20th August, 2003, the NDFB killed BLTF cadre at Ladangguri under Sarbhog police station limits in Barpeta district. On 21 March, 2003, an NDFB press release refutes allegations that it was planning to target top All Bodo Students’ Union (ABSU) and BLTF leaders. June 11, 2003, Media reports indicate that the NDFB has issued threats to the Bodo leaders and also to the leaders of the rival BLTF.
Bodo Sahitya Sabha (BSS): The NDFB has been demanding Roman script since their formation. But, Bodo Sahitya Sabha withdraws the demand in the Simbargaon, Sabha conference in February, 2000. Meanwhile, on 19th August, 2000, the President of Bodo Sahitya Sabha, Bineswar Brahma, was shot dead by suspected National Democratic Front of Boroland (NDFB) militants at his Bhetapara residence in the city around 8.30 this evening. The slain Bodo Sahitya Sabha (BSS) president, who was also Joint Manager, Movement and Commercial of Food Corporation of India (FCI), had played a major role in the peace initiative involving the BLTF and the Government of India. It may be mentioned that the NDFB was strongly opposed to Brahma’s idea of adopting Devanagiri script for Bodo language which was later endorsed by Bodo Sahitya Sabha also. The NDFB was pressuring the Sahitya Sabha to adopt Roman script for Bodo language. Sources here informed that the dastardly

killing of Brahma, who was instrumental in keeping the BSS flag flying against all odds, was a reflection of the deep sense of frustration of NDFB was suffering from after it had been sidelined in the Bodo peace process. He played a major role to bring an end to the fratricidal killings among different Bodo groups.i
Split in NDFB and Fratricidal killings: On 15th December, 2008, the NDFB held its General Assembly meeting at Serfanguri designated camp in Kokrajhar District and elected B. Sungthagra alias Dhiren Boro as the new „President‟ of the outfit. B. Sungthagra was previously the „Vice- President‟ of the outfit. On 1st January, 2009, NDFB expelled its founder president, Ranjan Daimary alias D.R. Nabla, after replacing him with B. Sungthagra alias Dhiren Boro as its new chief. The new NDFB president, Sungthagra, criticising the alleged involvement of Daimary in the October 30 serial bomb blasts in Assam, said on January 1 that the NDFB would have no truck with the former chief and his accomplices.ii On 18th November, the Ranjan Daimary faction of the banned NDFB constituted its new ‘Executive Committee’ with Ranjan Daimary as the ‘President’, Dinthi Gwra Narzary as ‘General Secretary’, ‘Captain’ Sangbijit as ‘Commander-of-Staff’ and Barbai Basumatary as ‘Assistant Publicity Secretary’. The NDFB-RD also appears to be heading for a split. The group led by the „chief‟ of Bodoland Army (the armed wing of the faction), I.K. Songbijit, on November 20, 2012, announced the formation of a nine member “Interim National Council”, with Songbijit as its self- proclaimed “Interim President”. iii These splits worsen the situation and increased the numbers of fratricidal clashes.
On 26th April, 2003, Suspected NDFB terrorists kill four members of the family of a former
colleague, including two children, at Taijouguri village, Kokrajhar district. On 21st May, 2007, the chairman of the ex-BLTF Welfare Society, Jonomohan Mushahary, warned the NDFB to stop fratricidal killings by targeting innocent Bodo youths and ex-BLTF cadres and viewed it as beyond their tolerance. He also accused the NDFB of having no respect for cease-fire ground rules and doubted whether their command over the outfit is intact. He urged the joint monitoring group to look after NDFB’s activities following cease-fire to clarify whether the outfit is in favour of restoring peace in the area and maintaining ground rules for peaceful negotiations. On 17th January, 2008, NDFB warned former members of the BLT, who formed the Bodoland Territorial Council, that “provocation” would invite strong retaliation from them. The outfit‟s information and publicity secretary, S. Sanjarang, claimed that some “ex-BLTF members” were trying to “provoke” his group into frittering away the gains from the peace process.iv On 14th March, 2008, Assam Government directed the police on to shift all NDFB members to three designated camps. According to the officials, the proximity of the NDFB cadres to members of the disbanded BLTF was causing law and order problems and the rival groups needed to be distanced. v
On 2nd January, 2010, a relative, of a pro-talks „commander‟ of the NDFB is shot dead by unidentified militants of Ranjan Daimary fraction of the NDFB at Silapur village in the Balijuri area
under Sootea Police Station in Sonitpur District along the Assam-Arunachal Pradesh border. Sources said deceased person Udai Mushahari was on the hit list of the Daimary faction as he was suspected to be a Police informer.vi On 4th January, 2010, a 52-year-old schoolteacher, Lilabati Basumatary, is shot dead by suspected cadres belonging to pro-talks faction of the NDFB at Harisingha Deolguri in the Udalguri District. Lilabati is the elder sister of Ranjan Daimary, who is leading the anti-talk faction of the NDFB. vii On 19th April, 2010, a surrendered NDFB militant, Thirangtha Basumatary (25), was shot dead by the anti-talks faction of the outfit at Pahijuri under Rangapara Police Station in Sonitpur District.

Source: Retrieved from
http://www.satp.org/satporgtop/countries/india/states/assam/terrorist_outfit/ndfb.. on 20/01/2012 at 09:12AM.
Figure 1. Shows that Bodo groups are continuously engaged in fratricidal clashes which resulted lost of many lives. In the year 2009 maximum 13 number of persons were killed and in 2004 minimum one person lost live. For unknown reasons in recently in 2012, 2013 and 2014 there is no fratricidal killings.
On 6th February, 2011, a militant, identified as B Thukang (28), belonging to NDFB-Progressive was killed by unknown miscreants in Bagmara village, under Dotma in Kokrajhar District. On 13th April, 2011, one person, identified as Ranendra Borgoyary (35) of Laukriguri, was killed in
Ballamjhora in Kokrajhar District. Police said Borgoyary, a surrendered NDFB cadre, was the vice- president of Gossaigaon District committee of the UDPF but had joined BPF before the Assembly election.
Role of the other organizations to stop Fratricidal Killings: Bodo National Council (BNC) an umbrella organization consisting 23 Bodo organizations was formed on 19th November, 2010, with the objective of providing a common platform for all Bodo organizations –civil, political and non- political organizations-to fight for their common causes, including the demand for a separate state of Bodoland.viii The major members of BNC at formation day included – Bodoland Peoples Front (BPF), All Bodo Women Welfare Federation (ABWWF), BWJF, Bodo Sahitya Sabha, Dularai Bodo Harimu Afad etc. The primary objective of the BNC is to work for greater unity and reconciliation among the civil society, Bodo leaders and organizations which have been involving in fratricidal killings. The peace efforts of the BNC have showed the seeds of unity among the warring Bodo groups.
Bodo Sahitya Sabha also organized a series of awareness programme to develop the “Peace, Unity and harmony” among the Bodos. They organized these progamme at Kajalgaon in Chirang district on 17th August, 2014, at Mushalpur, in Baksa district on 24th August,2014, on 30th August, 2014 at Udalguri and at Rangapara in Sonitpur on 14th September, 2014. There are many organizations which have been indulging in the peace- making process or to stop the fratricidal killing among the Bodo rebels.
Major Findings: Following are the some major findings from the above discussions:
1. The loggerheads are due to hobnobbing politics of Bodo leaders.
2. The NDFB had the rivalry with the ABSU due to BAC Accord.

3. The NDFB had the distrust on Bodo Sahitya Sabha because there agreement with the Central Government due to Roman Script issue.
4. The NDFB and BLTF had rivalry due to ideological differences of their objective.
5. There are continuous intra-group clashes among the Bodo rebel groups.
6. There are not only fratricidal killings with the NDFB and BLTF, but after the split in the NDFB in three factions there are also fratricidal killings amongst the NDFB factions.
7. The NDFB and the BLTF not only annihilate each other but also targeted the siblings of the rival groups.
8. The rivalry amongst the NDFB and BLTF increased after the BTC formation.
9. There are elite competitions among the Bodo leaders.
10. In the year 2009 maximum 13 persons lost lives in the fratricidal killings.
11. More or less all Bodo organizations are working for more maintain peace and harmony within the Bodo community.

Remedies:
1. Only mutual trust could stop the fratricidal killings among the Bodo rebel groups.
2. Non-political organization need to play an important role to bring the trust within the community.
3. By stopping of too much politicization of the any issues.
4. By stopping the elite competitions among the Bodo leaders.
5. Illegal arms should collect and hand over to authority.
6. By spreading the moral values like non-violence.
Conclusion: Fratricidal killings cause many lost of life within the Bodo community. Since the beginning of Bodoland movement there are so many infighting, disagreement and dissatisfaction towards the leadership. Such dissident group tried to annihilate each other as a result fratricidal clashes starts. With the help of some voluntary organization Bodos are now at present able somehow reduced such clashes and in the process of unification. Probably for self realization or for the threatening they have been facing from the intruder finally realized that unity is the best alternative way to revive their age old heritage.
International Research Journal of Interdisciplinary & Multidisciplinary Studies (IRJIMS)
A Peer-Reviewed Monthly Research Journal
ISSN: 2394-7969 (Online), ISSN: 2394-7950 (Print)
Volume-I, Issue-I, February 2015, Page No. 160-164
Published by: Scholar Publications, Karimganj, Assam, India, 788711 Website: http://www.irjims.com
Fratricidal Clashes in Bodoland Demand
Nabin Hakhrari
Ph.D. Scholar Dept. of Political Science North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, India
Abstract

Endnotes:

i The Assam Tribune, “Bodo Sahitya Sabha president shot dead” ,20th August, 2000. ii The Assam Tribune, “Rift in NDFB widens, Daimary expelled”, 2nd January, 2009. iii The Telegraph, “NDFB-R stares at split” 21st November, 2012.
iv The Telegraph, “NDFB in warning to rivals”, 18th January, 2008.
v The Telegraph, “Separation pill for Bodo rivals – Dispur sends NDFB cadres to camps”, 15th March, 2008.
vi The Telegraph, “Pro-talks Bodo leader‟s kin killed”, 3rd January, 2010.
vii The Telegraph, “Bodo spearhead’s sister shot”, 5th January, 2010.
viii Sushanta Talukdar, “New Body of Bodos to work for Statehood, The Hindu, 22nd August, 2012.

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Chronology for Bodos in India

Date(s) Item
Feb 6 – 21, 1989 The Bodos demanded separate statehood, during a five-day general strike. At least 24 people were killed and attacks on police, bombings, arsons, train derailments, and looting were reported.
Mar 1989 A two-week long Bodo tribals’ violent outburst (including a 175-hour strike beginning on March 2 and another 1,000 hour strike) forced the AGP-led state government (Chief Minister Prafulla Kumar Mahanta) to call in the army and the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF). The Bodo-dominated areas of Kokrajhar and Udalguri had been in turmoil for the past two weeks leaving some 32 dead and 40 injured. As ABSU-led young armed Bodo extremists engaged in arson and banditry attacked security guards and looted arms Assamese non-tribals in the Bodo-dominated areas fled to neighboring towns. Combing operations in Bodo-held areas were intensified allegedly because of armed Bodo training camps in the forests bordering Bhutan. The AGP government expressed its willingness to further accommodate all the tribals’ socio-economic demands but strongly stated that they would meet violence with violence to prevent any division of the state. AGP leaders charged the Congress(I) with encouraging the Bodo agitation in an attempt to destabilize the their government. While Bodo leaders denied that they received any support from the central government they threatened that if the AGP government were to flush them out they would demand the dismissal of the state government and the imposition of direct rule over Assam. The Bodos asserted that the AGP was a party of caste Hindus with little regard for minorities.
Apr 1989 Assam fell into chaos as the Bodos continued to wage violent attacks against the state. Bodos extremists killed 62 people in recent terrorist attacks. In addition, hundreds of others died in related violence.
Aug 1989 Over 150 people (reportedly) died during four days of Bodo rebellious violence earlier in the month. Over 60,000 Bodos fled into the neighboring state of Arunachal Pradesh during the peak of the unrest. An article in The Hindu implied that the above report may have been falsely circulated by the Congress (I) government of Arunachal Pradesh in an attempt to destabilize the AGP government. (During 1989 a main source of the turmoil in Assam was the rebellion of Bodo tribals.)
Jan 27, 1990 As the AASU increased its agitation, the AGP signed an agreement with it pledging that the investigations of illegal migrants would be completed by the end of October, 1990.
May 9, 1990 The ULFA killed Surendra Paul, an influential tea estate planter in its dominant area in upper Assam, causing many tea estate managers to flee Assam.
Aug 1990 The ASSU (general secretary Sammujjal Bhattacharya) prevented crude oil from leaving Assam, after Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait and the subsequent oil price shock, demanding the halt of construction of a second crude-oil pipeline from Assam. In addition, the ASSU demanded tighter control of migrants and more industry in Assam.
Sep 1990 The AASU demanded that all of Assam’s natural resources must be processed within the state. The AASU called for “real” implementation of the 1985 accord, alleging that the AGP government has deported only 45,000 out of some 200,000 illegal Bangladeshi migrants. Bhattacharya, ASSU general secretary, wanted new refinery projects using petroleum resources which would create jobs for 1.5 million unemployed Assamese youth.
Nov 27, 1990 Operation Bajrang was launched by Prime Minister Chandra Shekhar and President’s rule was imposed in Assam. The entire state of Assam was declared a “disturbed area”. The decision was made in response to the deteriorating state of law and order, mainly caused by the militant activities of the separatist ULFA. ULFA was outlawed and as a result, many ULFA leaders had fled into Myanmar. Congress(I) leader Rajiv Gandhi (as Chandra Shekhar’s newest coalition partner) supported Operation Bajrang. Still, the AGP argued that the Congress(I) had used the ULFA to reestablish its presence in Assam. Meanwhile, Bodos and other non-Assamese tribals were preparing to fight the ULFA. (During 1990 the separatist ULFA conducted a series of assassinations kidnappings and bomb attacks resulting in the central government’s declaration of President’s rule.)
Jan 19, 1991 The Minister of State for Internal Affairs, Subodh Kant Sahay said that ULFA (together with the National Socialist Council of Nagaland) had been banned.
Jan 28, 1991 ULFA expressed its willingness to accept any mediatory initiative, but the central government continued its campaign of arrests of suspected militants.
Feb 1991 A four-month stand-off continued between the ULFA and the central government until February 1991.
Feb 2, 1991 The ULFA sent a letter to Assam’s Governor D. D. Thakur, issuing its terms for negotiations with the central government. The terms included an immediate withdrawal of President’s rule which was imposed on 27 November 1990.
Mar 4, 1991 The ULFA unexpectedly declared a unilateral ceasefire and proposed negotiations with the center. It also demanded that all political groupings make clear by the end of March their standpoint on Assam’s independence and the central government’s “colonialism.” Governor D. Thakur agreed to negotiated with the UFLA but within the framework of the Indian Constitution. Rajiv Gandhi and Congress(I) leaders opposed any negotiations with the UFLA and called for the election in Assam to be canceled. Nevertheless Prime Minister Chandra Shekhar announced that an election would be held in Assam in May 1991. ULFA agreed not to interfere in the electoral process. Arbind Rajkowa ULFA chairman apologized to the people of Assam for the ULFA’s past mistakes. The gesture was regarded as the ULFA’s “temporary” response to four month of army occupation and increasing public pressure against the violence in Assam.
Mar 15, 1991 D. D. Thakur resigned after Rajiv Gandhi criticized him for failing to quell the insurgencies in Assam. He was replaced by Loknath Mishra. ULFA militants continued to resist Operation Bajrang (which reportedly has resulted in the deaths of 97 ULFA members since 27 November 1990) by particularly targeting Congress(I) leaders.
May 1991 During state elections, the AGP split and the Congress(I) won in Assam. Hiteswar Saikia was reappointed as the state’s Chief Minister.
Jul 1, 1991 ULFA resumed its terrorist operations, kidnapping 14 people (including a Soviet engineer).
Sep 15, 1991 Operation Rhino was launched after negotiation efforts stumbled. Two hundred and seventy companies of paramilitary forces from four army divisions were dispatched in Assam to push ULFA guerrillas.
Oct 13, 1991 A bomb, allegedly placed by the banned Bodo Security Force (BSF), on a train in the district of Barpeta killed 21 people.
Nov 21, 1991 The BSF was again blamed for two bomb explosions that killed 40 people in the town of Guwahati.
Dec 13, 1991 ULFA was forced to declare a unilateral and indefinite ceasefire as a result of internal fighting among ULFA members and the arrest of its key leaders. Still, 500 well-trained ULFA militants remained active beyond the control of the army. Meanwhile the AASU and its splinter faction the Naturn Assam Gana Parishad (NAGP) continued to demand the implementation of the 1985 accord. Also the Bodos continued to agitate for a separate state from Assam. The state and the central government were in discord because Assam’s Chief Minister Saikia wanted to negotiate with the ULFA whereas the central government strongly expressed faith in the Indian constitution and wanted to have the militants surrender their arms.
Dec 18, 1991 The ULFA accepted a unilateral, indefinite ceasefire, after the release of six remaining hostages abducted in July 1991.
Jan 13, 1992 The central government suspended the army’s Operation Bajrang and the ULFA agreed to end their four-year rebellion.
Mar 1 – Apr 30, 1992 The ULFA resumed fighting with the army after a breakdown in peace talks which began on March 31.
Apr 11, 1992 At least 140 ULFA members surrendered to the central government. 10 armed forces personnel were killed in an explosion, allegedly by the anti-talks faction of the ULFA.
Oct 13, 1992 21 people were killed in a bomb explosion on a train in the district of Barpeta, allegedly planted by rebels of the outlawed BSF.
Nov 21, 1992 40 people were killed in two bomb explosions in Guwahati, Assam. BSF members were alleged to be responsible.
Feb 20, 1993 A Memorandum of Settlement (MOS) was signed between the state of Assam, the central government of India, representatives of the ABSU and the Bodo People’s Action Committee (BPAC). Rather than acceding directly to the demand of the Bodo Tribe for a separate homeland, the MOS called for the creation of a 40-member Bodoland Autonomous Council (BAC) and a Bodoland Executive Council (BEC).
Jul 3, 1993 An agreement on the immediate implementation of the MOS was concluded between the state government and the Bodoland People’s Party (BPP).
Oct 12, 1993 Fifty people were left dead after violent clashes between members of the separatists and non-Bodo peoples in the Kokrajhar and Bongaigon districts of Assam.
Jan 1 – 15, 1994 The Bodos served an ultimatum for the demarcation of their “homeland” boundaries. Full-fledged armed guerrilla operations are in progress throughout Assam (along with Manipur, Nagaland, and Tripura) (Inter Press Service, 01/27/94). In the (militant-dominated) small towns of would-be Bodoland in Assam, schools and universities have stopped functioning.
Jan 27, 1994 A commotion over the inauguration of two universities in Assam compelled Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao to cancel public functions in Assam.
Mar 2, 1994 Bodo rebels released the head of Tata’s Tea operation in the northeast after 11 months of captivity.
May 27, 1994 Bodo militants set fire to the houses of Bengali-speaking Muslim settlers in the countryside district of Kokrajhar. More than 100 people were injured, 7,000 were left homeless and four villages were burned to the ground. To restore order and combat the rioting between Bodo separatists and the native Assamese population that followed the event, ten truckloads of army troops and hundreds of paramilitary troops were deployed.
May 29, 1994 Bodo militants attacked four Muslim villages in lower Assam’s Kokrajhar district, leaving at least 21 dead and 4,000 homeless. The ULFA (led by ethnic Assamese militants) and BSF have (reportedly) become allies as have other militants in the region.
Jun 29, 1994 Pradip Gogoi, the vice-chairman of the United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) was arrested in Assam (BBC, 06/29/94).
Jul 22, 1994 Twenty-one people were killed during riots between the Bodos and long-time Muslim immigrants in Assam’s Barpeta district. Ten Muslim and five Bodo villages were burnt, leading some 5000 people to flee. Police officials indicate that tensions between the two communities began nine days ago after a police party, that was investigating the killings of two Muslims, was ambushed by Bodo militants. Seven policemen died in the attack (Reuters, 07/22/94, 07/24/94).
Jul 24, 1994 Armed Bodo militants opened fire at Bangladeshi immigrants at the Bansbari relief camp, some 160 km east of the Assamese capital of Guwahati. At least 71 people were killed, including two Bodo guerrillas, and over 100 injured. In 1993, the federal government and the Bodos signed an accord to reportedly end the insurgency. However, the Bodos are now demanding that 515 villages be included in the autonomous Bodoland area and that the influx of Bangladeshi migrants be curbed. The government excluded the villages from the original deal due to national security concerns (they form part of the India-Bhutan border) (UPI, 07/24/94).
Jul 27, 1994 The massacre at the Bansbari relief camp on July 24 has prompted more than 54,000 people, mostly Muslims, to flee their villages and head towards cities such as Guwahati or Barpeta. The Indian government has sent 3000 additional troops to Assam (The Independent, 07/27/94; Reuters, 07/27/94).
Jul 30, 1994 Rajesh Pilot, the federal Minister of State for Home, admits that lapses in the state administration and the lack of adequate police forces led to the massacre of over 70 Bangladeshis at a relief camp last week. A 24-hour strike call by the All Assam Students Union was partly observed throughout the state (BBC, 07/30/94).
Jul 31, 1994 Indian army officials have received the permission of the Bhutan government to enter its territory to destroy bases suspected of harboring Bodo militants (Reuters, 07/31/94).
Aug 1, 1994 Police forces followed about 15 ULFA members into Bhutan but were unable to capture them (Reuters, 08/01/94).
Aug 16, 1994 In an attempt to check rising violence against Muslims, the Assam government will hire more Muslim policemen. One in three new recruits and one out of two officers will now be from the Muslim community (Reuters 08/16/94).
Nov 10, 1994 Seventeen ULFA members surrendered in front of Assam chief minister Hiteswar Saikia in Guwahati, the state capital (BBC, 11/10/94).
Nov 20, 1994 The Indian government has extended its ban on three outlawed groups in the northeastern part of the country. The groups are the Bodo Security Force (BSF), the United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA), and the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) (Reuters, 11/20/94).
Jan 25, 1995 Around 50 Bodos attacked a group of laborers in Kokrajhar district, Assam, killing nine and seriously wounding eight others (BBC, 01/25/95).
Apr 1, 1995 Authorities believe that members of the outlawed Bodo Security Force are responsible for killing nine people at Udalguri, in Assam’s northern Darrang district (UPI, 04/01/95).
May 3, 1995 The Assam government states that 146 people have died of malaria while 54,823 have contracted the disease. However, health experts indicate that the numbers are double or triple that of government estimates and argue that the federal government did not provide money for chemical spraying (Reuters, 05/03/95).
Jun 4, 1995 India and Myanmar have joined forces to crack down on insurgent groups that operate in the border areas of each country. Indian government officials indicate that one of the northeastern rebel groups seeking independence suffered heavy losses after Myanmar’s troops drove them back into India where Indian troops were waiting. Over 35 rebels were reportedly killed and another 50 injured. The head of ULFA, Paresh Baruah, denied the claimed government casualty toll (New York Times, 06/04/95).
Aug 1, 1995 Members of ULFA and the BSF jointly attacked a police camp and police station in Darrang district, killing two policemen. A few days earlier, ULFA militants killed eight policemen in an ambush in Kamrup district. Authorities responded by deploying police commandos in the state (BBC, 08/01/95). On this same day the Federal Minister of State for Home indicated that the situation in Assam had improved and that the United Liberation Front of Assam had largely been contained (BBC 08/01/95).
Aug 3, 1995 An ambush by ULFA rebels resulted in the deaths of eight police personnel in Kamrup district in Assam (BBC, 08/03/95).
Oct 6, 1995 Irrigation Department executive engineer Dhir Kanta Debsarma was released by ULFA rebels in Assam following 75 days of captivity (BBC, 10/06/95).
Oct 14, 1995 One soldier was killed and another seriously injured after a police patrol was ambushed by the ULFA in Darrang district. In another incident in Assam, suspected Bodo rebels killed one person in Kokrajhar district (UPI, 10/14/95).
Oct 26, 1995 Three people, including the President of the Citizens Rights Preservation Committee, were killed in two episodes in Assam. BSF militants were reportedly involved in one of the instances (BBC, 10/26/95).
Oct 29, 1995 A bomb exploded on a passenger bus in Assam, killing four people and injuring fifteen others. No one has claimed responsibility but officials believe the Bodos were possibly involved (UPI, 10/29/95).
Nov 1, 1995 Bodo Security Force (BSF) members are reported to be responsible for a bomb blast in Assam that killed three soldiers and seriously wounded three others (BBC, 11/01/95).
Nov 12, 1995 A gastro enteritis epidemic in two Assamese districts has claimed the lives of at least 45 people. More than 35,000 others have been affected by the disease (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 11/12/95).
Nov 19, 1995 Eight people were killed in Assam when the BSF fired at a passenger bus (Reuters, 11/19/95).
Nov 23, 1995 A joint ambush of a police patrol by the BSF and ULFA has resulted in the deaths of five policeman and their civilian driver. Two other policemen were injured (Reuters, 11/23/95).
Dec 9, 1995 In separate incidents in the Bodoland Autonomous Council areas, eleven people were killed and six others seriously wounded. The Assam government has asked the center to close the Indo-Bhutan border to check the cross-border movements of militants. State officials also requested additional troop deployments (Xinhua News Agency, 12/09/95).
Dec 31, 1995 Militants ambushed the convoy of Assam’s Health Minister, Dr. Bhumidhar Barman. The minister escaped unhurt; three people were killed and ten injured in the incident. No information was available on who was responsible (BBC, 12/31/95).
Feb 22, 1996 Indian Prime Minister Narasimha Rao offers to hold talks with insurgents in the northeast. Officials state that the Bodo Security Force (BSF) is responsible for the killings of 5 paramilitary soldiers in a land mine blast (Agence France Presse, 02/22/96).
Feb 26, 1996 In three attacks last week, militant Bodos kill 12 military personnel and 9 immigrant workers (Reuters, 02/26/96).
Mar 18, 1996 Bodo militant groups kill three government employees in Assam (BBC, 03/18/96).
Apr 22, 1996 Assam Chief Minister Hiteswar Saikia dies of cardiac arrest. He had been chief minister since 1991 (Agence France Presse, 04/22/96).
Apr 26, 1996 ULFA claims responsibility for the murder of a Congress Party candidate near Margherita town (Agence France Presse, 04/26/96).
May 6, 1996 An Assamese government minister and 10 of his bodyguards are killed in Golaghat district. The NSCN (Naga rebel group) and ULFA are blamed (Agence France Presse, 05/06/96).
May 23, 1996 Nearly 80 people are dead after clashes between Bodos and members of the Santhal tribe in the past week in Kokrajhar and Bongaigaon districts. Over 100,000 are left homeless as their houses are burnt and another 100,000 have fled to temporary camps. The clashes reportedly started after the killing of 3 Bodo girls (Agence France Presse, 05/23/96).
Jul 2, 1996 Flooding in Assam in the past month claims over 500 lives (Agence France Presse, 07/02/96).
Jul 28, 1996 ULFA is blamed for the deaths of two policemen and one civilian (United Press International, 07/28/96).
Jul 30, 1996 The President of the All Bodo Students Union (ABSU), Sumbla Basumatary, is killed by three gunmen in Kokrajhar district. Police suspect the involvement of Bodo tribals (Agence France Presse, 07/30/96).
Aug 15, 1996 A police officer is killed in Nalbari district on the country’s Independence Day. Bodos enforce a 24-hour strike in the state and attack a number of police posts (Agence France Presse, 08/15/96).
Aug 19, 1996 ULFA reportedly kills 13 military personnel in three attacks and the Bodos kill 10 people in Assam. The army launched an offensive against Bodo bases in Bhutan this month (Agence France Presse, 08/19/96).
Sep 13, 1996 A general strike called by the All Assam Students Union (AASU) paralyzes the state. The AASU alleges that the state’s voters list is full of illegal Bangladeshi immigrants and it wants the list revised before by-elections are held on October 11. The organization has over 500,000 supporters (Agence France Presse, 09/13/96).
Oct 28, 1996 Prime Minister Gowda invites rebel groups in the northeast to hold peace talks (Agence France Presse, 10/28/96).
Nov 7, 1996 An ULFA-called 24-hour general strike cripples Assam. The strike was held to protest alleged army atrocities and human rights violations against civilians (Agence France Presse, 11/07/96).
Nov 19, 1996 Eleven villagers in Kokrajhar district are killed by unnamed rebels. Over 250 people have died in violent attacks in Assam this year (Agence France Presse, 12/06/96).
Nov 21, 1996 Thirteen people are killed, likely by Bodo groups, in two incidents in Assam (BBC, 11/21/96).
Nov 28, 1996 An explosion in a petroleum pipeline of a state-owned oil company in Nalbari district results in a massive fire. Officials suspect the involvement of the United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA). New Delhi accuses Bangladesh of sheltering ULFA militants; Dhaka denies the claim (Agence France Presse, 11/28/96).
Dec 6, 1996 Police state that ULFA is responsible for the deaths of 5 civilians when a fire erupts in a market in Barpeta town (Agence France Presse, 12/06/96).
Dec 10, 1996 Some 1000 Bodos, including members of the ABSU, march near the Parliament building in New Delhi to press for a separate tribal state to be carved out of Assam (Agence France Presse, 12/10/96).
Dec 30, 1996 While the official toll is listed at 33, more than 100 people are suspected dead as a result of a bomb explosion on a train in Assam. Bodo groups are believed to be responsible. They are also blamed for blowing up two bridges in the area (Reuters, 12/30/96).
Jan 1, 1997 Police state that Bodo militants destroyed a railway bridge in Darrang district, Assam (Agence France Presse, 01/01/97).
Jan 7, 1997 Bodo rebels are suspected in the bombing of a courthouse in Kamrup district. This is the 4th bombing in Assam since December 29 (Agence France Presse, 01/07/97).
Jan 13, 1997 Officials state that the Bodo Security Force (BSF) reportedly killed 9 members of its rival Bodoland Liberation Tigers Front (BLTF) in a raid on its camp in Nalbari district. Two days earlier, Bodos shot dead two soldiers while ULFA members reportedly killed two hotel owners in Lakhimpur district (Agence France Presse, 01/13/97).
Jan 19, 1997 Some 25,000 government troops begin to move into Assam for a reported major crackdown against insurgents (Agence France Presse, 01/19/97).
Jan 22, 1997 The Bodo Security Force (BSF) allegedly kills eight woodcutters in three raids in Assam (Reuters, 01/22/97).
Jan 24, 1997 An AASU-called strike shuts down Assam. The student organization is protesting against the federal government’s deployment of the army in the state. It says that the Assam government should have made the decision. The Bodo Liberation Tigers Front (BLTF) declares a ceasefire after one of its leaders is recently killed. The BLTF is reported to be responsible for the December 30, 1996, train attack (Agence France Presse, 01/24/97).
Jan 26, 1997 An ULFA-called 12-hour shutdown is observed in Assam on India’s Republic Day (Agence France Presse, 01/26/97).
Feb 7, 1997 The United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) rejects peace talks with the government due to the army’s crackdown in the state. An ULFA-called general strike is observed in five districts (Agence France Presse, 02/07/97).
Feb 18, 1997 Officials blame ULFA for the ambush attempt on an intelligence officer in Guwahati. One person died (Agence France Presse, 02/18/97).
Mar 22, 1997 Bodo groups reportedly kill the wife of a tea estate owner and two bodyguards in Assam, likely due to an extortion attempt (Agence France Presse, 03/22/97).
Apr 19, 1997 An ULFA-called 12-hour strike is observed in Assam. The strike is held to protest last week’s alleged police killings of some of the organization’s activists (Agence France Presse, 04/19/97).
Apr 24, 1997 The government says that violent activities in Assam have significantly increased since last year’s general elections when compared to the previous two years. It says that ULFA is responsible for 107 deaths in the past year, including the deaths of 48 police/security personnel. Intercommunal violence has resulted in around 200 deaths (Agence France Presse, 04/24/97).
May 14, 1997 Close to 5000 additional troops are to be deployed in Assam to deal with tribal violence. Up to the first week of May, ULFA is reported to be responsible for 79 attacks which resulted in 60 deaths. The Bodos are blamed for 42 killings during the same time period. In 1996, they are believed to responsible for around 260 deaths (Agence France Presse, 05/14/97).
May 20, 1997 Prime Minister Gujral offers to hold unconditional talks with rebels in the northeastern states. He does however state that the country will not be broken up. His offer comes as an ULFA-called strike is observed in Assam (Agence France Presse, 05/19-20/97).
Jun 13, 1997 A 10-hour strike called by the ruling AGP, its 6 allies, and opposition groups is held in Assam. The strike is to protest an ULFA attempt to assassinate Chief Minister Prafulla Kumar Mahanta. This is the first anti-ULFA strike. The United Front for the Liberation of Assam had called on the population to oppose the strike (Agence France Presse, 06/13/97).
Jul 2, 1997 Thousands of people in Guwahati hold a rally against violence and terrorism in the state. The rally was organized by the ruling AGP and five other political parties which called on ULFA to open peace talks. While ULFA warns the population against participating in the rally, this is seen as the first organized effort by the ruling alliance and its allies to politically challenge militant groups (Hindu, 07/02/97). Six soldiers are killed in an ambush in Darrang district. It is not known who is responsible (Agence France Presse 07/02/97).
Jul 4, 1997 A prominent social activist, Sanjay Ghose, is reported abducted by ULFA. Ghose is the secretary of the NGO, the Association of Voluntary Agencies for Rural Development (Hindu, 07/08/97).
Jul 21, 1997 A 36-hour general strike called by the AASU cripples Assam. The students’ group, which reportedly has the support of 3 million people, is demanding the deportation of illegal Bangladeshi immigrants (Agence France Presse, 07/21/97).
Aug 7, 1997 Some residents in Guwahati protest against the alleged death of social activist Sanjay Ghose and call for a boycott of ULFA. The United Liberation Front for the Liberation of Assam (ULFA) says that Ghose died while trying to escape. He was reported to have been kidnapped by ULFA on July 4 (Statesman, 08/07/97).
Aug 8, 1997 Seven members of the Bodo Security Force (BSF) are reported killed in an encounter with soldiers in Darrang district. In other incidents, ULFA members are blamed for the deaths of two soldiers while three of its members were arrested near Guwahati (Agence France Presse, 08/08/97).
Aug 11, 1997 No deaths are reported when a bomb derails a train in Assam. ULFA or the Bodos are suspected (Agence France Presse, 08/11/97).
Aug 13, 1997 A 36-hour strike called by the ABSU closes down Kokrajhar and Bongaigaon districts and other Bodo-dominated areas. In the last few days, bombs reportedly planted by Bodo rebel groups have killed non-Assamese people (Statesman, 08/13/97).
Aug 14, 1997 Several women hold a protest in Guwahati over the reported killing of social activist Sanjay Ghose by ULFA (Hindu, 08/14/97). Seven people die when a railway train carriage is blown up in Assam. Authorities believe the Bodos are responsible. This is the fourth attack blamed on the Bodos in the past week. Earlier 13 villagers were killed (Agence France Presse 08/14/97).
Aug 15, 1997 An ULFA-called strike to denounce human rights abuses closes down Assam. Several hundred people hold a procession in Guwahati in defiance of the ULFA call (Agence France Presse, Hindu, 08/15/97).
Aug 16, 1997 Suspected rebels of the Bodoland Army C the armed wing of the National Democratic Front of Bodoland C raid villages in Nalbari district. Fourteen Bengalis are killed. ULFA and Bodo groups also set fire to government offices and railway stations and blow up a bridge (Statesman 08/16/97).
Aug 17, 1997 The Bodoland State Movement Council asks the federal government to intervene to maintain law and order in Assam (Statesman, 08/17/97).
Aug 18, 1997 Seven Bodos are likely killed by Bengalis in Nalbari district, in what is viewed as a retaliation for the August 16th attack against Bengalis (Agence France Presse, 08/18/97).
Aug 19, 1997 ULFA is reported to be responsible for the killing of a Surrendered ULFA (SULFA, i.e. former rebels’ organization) member in Nalbari district (Statesman, 08/19/97).
Aug 28, 1997 Four officers are dead following an alleged ULFA attack on a jeep convoy in Nahoratiya district (Agence France Presse, 08/28/97).
Sep 18, 1997 A meeting is held between the representatives of the federal and Assam governments and six Bodo groups, including the body that governs the Bodo district, the Bodo Autonomous Council. Bodo militant groups boycott the meeting which discussed the implementation of the 1993 Bodo accord. The government rejects the creation of a separate Bodo state and proposes that a working group be established (Statesman, 09/18/97).
Sep 26, 1997 Five villagers are killed in Assam in an alleged dispute between rival Bodo groups (Agence France Presse, 09/26/97).
Oct 13, 1997 A reported ULFA ambush in Goalpara district results in the deaths of four soldiers (Agence France Presse, 10/13/97).
Nov 25, 1997 A limited response, except in Bodo-majority areas in Assam, was reported to a 24-hour strike called last week by the All Bodo Students Union (ABSU) (Statesman, 11/25/97).
Nov 28, 1997 ULFA reportedly blows up part of a 1500 km oil pipeline and kills a police officer in western Assam. Earlier it held an 18-hour blockage that forced three oil refineries to temporarily close to mark the 7th anniversary of the government crackdown against the group (Agence France Presse, 11/28/97).
Dec 2, 1997 Four ULFA and three Bodos are killed in clashes with police forces in Assam (AAP Newsfeed, 12/02/97).
Dec 9, 1997 A strike called by the All Assam Students Union (AASU) shuts down Assam. The AASU says the strike was to protest the inclusion of Bangladeshi immigrants on electoral rolls. It asserts that some 7 million immigrants who entered the country since 1986 are on the rolls (Agence France Presse, 12/09/97).
Dec 10, 1997 ULFA says it is willing to hold talks with the federal government but they must be held outside the country with UN supervision and sovereignty must be discussed (Agence France Presse, 12/10/97).
Dec 14, 1997 Police blame Bodo rebel groups for a bomb explosion in Bongaigaon district that results in the deaths of four soldiers (Agence France Presse, 12/14/97).
Jan 1, 1998 Three Bodos are reported killed, likely in retaliation for the deaths of 14 non-Bodos in Darrang district. Around 700 people have died in the past 18 months in the northern and western Bodo-dominated districts (Agence France Presse, 01/01/98).
Jan 4, 1998 The Bodos are blamed for the deaths of seven Hindu villagers in Assam. A few days earlier, they reportedly killed 9 other villagers (AAP Newsfeed, 01/04/98).
Jan 8, 1998 A 12-hour ULFA called strike paralyzes Assam. The rebels are protesting the arrest of one of their leaders in Bangladesh (Agence France Presse, 01/08/98).
Jan 15, 1998 A strike called by Assamese political parties is observed. The strike is to protest the killing of 18 Assamese villagers yesterday, likely by the BLTF (Statesman, 01/15/1998; Agence France Presse, 01/14/98).
Jan 26, 1998 An ULFA strike on India’s Republic Day closes down Assam. The rebels also attack a railway station (Agence France Presse, 01/26/98).
Feb 13, 1998 An AASU-called strike is observed in Assam. The student organization is protesting the inclusion of Bangladeshi immigrants on the electoral rolls (AAP Newsfeed, 02/13/98).
Feb 14, 1998 Three Bodo Liberation Tiger Force (BLTF) members are killed in an army encounter (BBC, 02/14/98).
Feb 16, 1998 Some 42% of the population of Assam votes in federal elections despite the first ever ULFA call for a boycott. ULFA members reportedly snatched ballot boxes at a dozen polling stations and kidnapped at least 3 members of the ruling AGP party. ULFA is already reported to be responsible for the murder of an AGP campaign manager and a political candidate and the kidnapping of 12 of its workers. Yesterday, six ULFA and two BLTF members were killed in encounters with the police (Agence France Presse, 02/11/98; Inter Press Service, 02/10/98; Statesman, 02/15-16/98).
Feb 26, 1998 Reports indicate that militancy among Muslims in Assam is growing. The Islamic Liberation Tigers of Assam, which reportedly has safe haven in Bangladesh, is demanding a Muslim state in Muslim-dominant districts (Statesman, 02/26/98).
Mar 9, 1998 India asks Bhutan for permission to attack ULFA and BSF bases in Bhutan. The two organizations are reported to have more than 12 bases in neighboring Bhutan (Inter Press Service, 03/09/98).
Mar 17, 1998 Six businessmen are abducted by unknown militants in Assam (Agence France Presse, 03/17/98).
Apr 2, 1998 The federal BJP government offers to hold unconditional talks with rebel groups in the northeast (Agence France Presse, 04/02/98).
Apr 9, 1998 A top ULFA leader is arrested in the state of West Bengal. In response to the government’s offer to open talks, ULFA says that it has no choice but to continue an armed struggle as an independent state cannot be granted under the constitution (Agence France Presse, 04/09/98).
Apr 19, 1998 Two local leaders of the ABSU are reportedly killed by NDFB members in Darrang district. The ABSU is alleged to have links to the BLTF, which a rival of the NDFB. The Bodo Liberation Tigers Front (BLTF) is fighting for a separate Bodo state within the Indian union while the National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) wants a sovereign Bodoland. The NDFB was formerly known as the Bodo Security Force (Statesman, 04/19/98).
May 3, 1998 Bodos reportedly kill 14 members of the Santhal tribe in Assam. Last week, the Santhals killed four Bodos (Agence France Presse, 05/03/98).
May 8, 1998 Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee announces an annual $400 million package to build infrastructure in the eight northeast states (Agence France Presse, 05/08/98).
May 9, 1998 Fourteen Santhals are killed by Bodos in Kokrajhar district. Some 10,000 people flee. Four days earlier, two Bodos were killed and around 100 of their houses were burnt by Santhals. Clashes between the two tribal groups in 1996 left more than 500 people dead (Agence France Presse, 05/09/98).
May 15, 1998 The United Front of Assam (ULFA), which is fighting for an independent state in Assam, warns the NSCN (I-M) (the major Naga rebel group) about encroaching on Assamese territory. The warning follows the reported killing of a family member of an ULFA leader by the NSCN (I-M). Rebel demands for a greater Nagaland include territory that is currently part of Assam, Manipur, and Arunchal Pradesh (Statesman, 05/15/98).
May 25, 1998 A meeting is held between representatives of the federal and Assam governments and some Bodo groups. The two sides agree to meet again. Last September, the various parties agreed to establish a working group but Bodo groups opted out shortly afterward indicating that they are not interested in the autonomous Bodo council and instead want a separate state in India (Statesman, 05/24-27/98).
Jun 5, 1998 The fifth bomb attack in four days is reported in Assam. Bodo groups, including the BLTF, are suspected (Agence France Presse, 06/05/98).
Jun 21, 1998 Hundreds of women demonstrate to protest the alleged rape of two women by soldiers in Paikarkuchi village (Agence France Presse, 06/21/98).
Jul 18, 1998 Seven policemen are reported killed by Bodo rebels (Agence France Presse, 07/18/98).
Jul 24, 1998 Some 51 member of ULFA reportedly surrender to authorities (Statesman, 07/24/98).
Jul 25, 1998 Bodos allegedly kill 7 members of the Santhal community, a rival tribal group, in Kokrajhar district (Agence France Presse, 07/25/98).
Jul 26, 1998 In an attempt to prevent former militants from returning to violence, the federal government will establish a new battalion in Assam comprised of ex-ULFA members (Agence France Presse, 07/26/98).
Jul 29, 1998 Police believe the NDFB is responsible for a bomb blast in Nalbari district which claims 11 lives (Agence France Presse, 07/29/98).
Jul 30, 1998 Members of the Santhal tribe kill 11 Bodos in Kokrajhar district, reportedly in response for a Bodo attack against them last week. The ownership of land is reported to be the main point of contention (Agence France Presse, 07/30/98).
Aug 3, 1998 Hundreds of Bodos and Santhals flee their villages and take shelter in refugee camps (Statesman, 08/03/98). Reports indicate the Bodoland Autonomous Council (BAC) still remains a very poor region with little development undertaken in the past few years. The BAC says that the state government has not provided funds for development. There are also allegations that some money that has been misspent. Although the BAC was created under a 1993 agreement its jurisdictional area still remains undefined (Ibid.).
Aug 6, 1998 Three army personnel die in a bomb blast in Nalbari district. ULFA is suspected (Statesman, 08/06/98).
Aug 11, 1998 ULFA claims responsibility for an explosion and fire at an oil depot in Nagaon district (Statesman, 08/11/98).
Aug 12, 1998 Twelve people are killed in various incidents in Assam, including four Bengalis killed by Bodo groups (Agence France Presse, 08/12/98).
Aug 14, 1998 ULFA is blamed for the deaths of five civilians and the Bodos for four deaths (BBC, 08/14/98).
Aug 15, 1998 The BLTF kills seven civilians and strikes are held in Assam to mark India’s Independence Day (Agence France Presse, Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 08/15/98).
Aug 24, 1998 At least three people die in a massive bomb blast at the main railway station in Guwahati. ULFA claims responsibility (Agence France Presse, 08/24-25/98).
Aug 26, 1998 Four ULFA members are killed in a gun battle with security forces (Agence France Presse, 08/26/98).
Aug 30, 1998 The government and ULFA blame each other for the deaths of three SULFA members (former militants) who are helping police forces. In recent weeks, some 200, mainly ULFA, rebels have surrendered (Agence France Presse, 08/30/98).
Sep 9, 1998 Bodo-Santhal violence in the last few days has resulted in 15 Santhal houses being burnt and two Santhal deaths in Kokrajhar district (Statesman, 09/08/98).
Sep 16, 1998 Members of the NDFB reportedly kill 14 members of the Orang ethnic group and six Santhals. The Santhals kill three Bodos (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 09/16/98).
Sep 26, 1998 Tribal violence between the Santhals and Bodos has subsided after some three weeks. Over 50 people have died, over 10,000 houses torched in some 30 villages, many in Kokrajhar district. Over 100,000 people are homeless and refugee camps where some of them are residing report a lack of food and the spread of diseases (Agence France Presse, 09/17-26/98).
Sep 28, 1998 ULFA is blamed for an ambush of a paramilitary convoy in Goalpara district. Seven soldiers died (Agence France Presse, 09/28/98).
Oct 3, 1998 More than 1000 Santhals demonstrate in Guwahati demanding that the government provide them with proper weapons to protect themselves against Bodo attacks (Agence France Presse, 10/03/98).
Oct 8, 1998 The military leader of ULFA, Paresh Barua, rejects a ceasefire with the government. He says that the rebels will only consider holding talks if they are held outside of the country and sovereignty is included on the agenda (Agence France Presse, 10/08/98).
Oct 9, 1998 Some 13 Assamese and Bengalis are killed in three attacks in Darrang district. The BLTF is suspected in one incident (Statesman, 10/09/98).
Oct 11, 1998 The National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB), formerly known as the Bodo Security Force (BSF) is believed responsible for a fire in a market in Sonitpur region which results in five deaths. A Bodo group is also suspected in the deaths of five forest guards in Kokrajhar district (Agence France Presse, 10/11/98).
Oct 17, 1998 The NDFB reportedly kills five Adivasis at a relief camp in Kokrajhar district. The Adivasis burn down 10 Bodo huts (Statesman, 10/17/98).
Oct 29, 1998 An AASU-called strike to protest rising violence paralyzes Assam. Over 1000 people in the state have died this year (Agence France Presse, 10/29/98).
Oct 30, 1998 The NDFB reportedly kills 7 Santhals west of Guwahati (Agence France Presse, 10/30/98).
Nov 11, 1998 Reports indicate that ULFA and Bodo rebel groups shifted their camps from Bangladesh to Bhutan after Sheikh Hasina assumed power in Dhaka (Statesman, 11/11/98).
Nov 25, 1998 The Roman Catholic Church of India says it has been forced to close down one of its leading missions in Dhubri district after a priest was kidnapped, likely by the mostly Christian Santhals (Agence France Presse, 11/25/98).
Nov 28, 1998 ULFA is blamed for the deaths of five soldiers in Fibfagar district and bomb explosions at two oil pipelines and two bridges in Dibrugarh and Morigaon districts (Agence France Presse, 11/28/98).
Dec 2, 1998 India and Bhutan launch an unprecedented joint military offensive after a Bodo attack on a Bhutanese convoy in Assam results in the deaths of four soldiers. The Bhutanese army often travels through Assamese territory to access other parts of Bhutan (Agence France Presse, 12/02/98).
Dec 12, 1998 Bodos kill at least 23 Muslim settlers in Kokrajhar district (Agence France Presse, 12/12/98).
Dec 15, 1998 The United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) accuses the federal government of trying to trigger civil war by killing the relatives of its top activists. It says that in the past four months there have been 50 state-sponsored murders, including 30 relatives of senior ULFA officials (Agence France Presse, 12/15/98).
Dec 18, 1998 Nine people are killed in a car bomb attack in Guwahati. The Bodos or ULFA are suspected (Agence France Presse, 12/18/98).
Dec 20, 1998 ULFA is suspected in a bomb attack in Dhubri district in which 6 policemen and 4 civilians were killed (Statesman, 12/20/98).
Dec 27, 1998 Two weeks ago, a top tea executive in Dhubri district and a plantation manager in Cahchar district were killed. At least 50 tea plantations report they have received extortion demands from rebel groups. In the past five years, at least 20 tea executives have been killed and more than 30 kidnapped for ransom (Agence France Presse, 12/27/98).
Jan 1, 1999 The NDFB is suspected in an attack on a relief camp in Kokrajhar district which resulted in the deaths of 3 policemen and the torching of 50 huts. The Adivasis reportedly retaliate by burning down two Bodo villages (Statesman, 01/01/99).
Jan 26, 1999 ULFA is suspected as an oil pipeline is blown up near Digboi town. Two soldiers are also killed in Sibsagar district (Agence France Presse, 01/26/99).
Feb 4, 1999 ULFA and three other unnamed northeast rebel groups launch their own websites to garner support (Agence France Presse, 02/04/99).
Mar 1, 1999 Eight Muslim villagers are killed by Bodos in Dhubri district. Nearly 50,000 Muslims who fled anti-Muslim violence in 1994-95 remain in refugee camps in Assam (Agence France Presse, 03/01/99).
Mar 8, 1999 Six relatives of ULFA leaders are killed in Guwahati, likely by former ULFA members. The attack is reportedly in retaliation for a recent ULFA attack on an apartment building that houses former militants. Some 20,000 people have died in Assam in the past 15 years (Agence France Presse, 03/08/99).
Mar 10, 1999 ULFA is reported to have established new bases inside Burma. The rebels likely moved from their previous positions in Bhutan due to intensified efforts by the Bhutanese government to remove anti-Indian elements within its borders (Agence France Presse, 03/10/99).
Mar 13, 1999 Seven paramilitary personnel are killed in various ambushes in Assam (Agence France Presse, 03/13/99).
Apr 14, 1999 The All Assam Students Union (AASU) says that it will no longer call strikes as they are hurting the state’s economic development. It says it will use other protest measures. From June 1997 to June 1998, there were 74 work stoppages in Assam (Statesman, 04/14/99).
May 2, 1999 Eight militants and a army officer die in a gun battle in Assam (Agence France Presse, 05/11/99).
Jun 1, 1999 Some 100 Bodos attack 2 Santhal villages in Dhubri district. At least 14 people are dead (Agence France Presse, 06/01/99).
Jun 8, 1999 The NDFB and the BLFT say that they will end their rivalry and pool their resources to fight for a separate Bodo state within India that will be carved out of Assam (Agence France Presse, 06/08/99).
Jun 22, 1999 A bomb blast at Jalpaiguri railway station in West Bengal kills 9 people. Police believe ULFA is responsible (Agence France Presse, 08/02/99).
Jun 29, 1999 ULFA is suspected in a bomb blast in Kamrup district that results in the deaths of seven policemen (Agence France Presse, 06/29/99).
Jul 9, 1999 Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee warns Pakistan against fanning separatist unrest in the country’s northeast. The Indian army reports that Pakistani intelligence agents are working in tandem with separatist groups. An ULFA-called strike is observed in Assam as Vajpayee visits the state. Reports indicate that separatist activities have increased in Assam as security forces have been redeployed to Jammu and Kashmir (Agence France Presse, 07/09/99).
Jul 15, 1999 The Bodo Liberation Tiger Force declares a unilateral ceasefire and says that it is ready for peace talks with New Delhi. It says that India is facing a national crisis in Kargil (in Jammu and Kashmir) and that Pakistan is trying to exploit the situation. In May of this year, Pakistani troops and Kashmiri insurgents were discovered occupying territory in Indian-held Kashmir. Since then, Indian troops have been attempting to dislodge them (Agence France Presse, 07/15/99).
Aug 9, 1999 The Bodos are suspected in the third bomb attack at a railway station in Assam in the past 10 days. No deaths are reported (Agence France Presse, 08/09/99).
Aug 10, 1999 ULFA reportedly blows up a portion of the national highway in Nalbari district as part of its campaign to cut transport lines with Assam (Agence France Presse, 08/10/99).
Aug 14, 1999 Six people, including three militants, are killed in Assam (Agence France Presse 08/14/99).
Aug 15, 1999 Over 200 tribal rebels surrender in Assam while three people are injured in two bomb blasts. The government regularly offers an amnesty on the country’s Independence Day (Agence France Presse, 08/15/99).
Aug 19, 1999 The federal government is still offering to hold unconditional talks with ULFA and is awaiting a response from the rebels. Meanwhile, five ULFA members are killed when police attack one of the organization’s communications centers and four NDFB members die in a police encounter in Bongaigaon district (Statesman, 08/19/99).
Sep 7, 1999 The United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) calls for a boycott of the September-October federal elections (Agence France Presse, 09/07/99).